1. Alford, Violet. “Rough Music or Charivari.” Folklore 70.4 (1959): 505-518. JSTOR. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. – This article explores three reasons for staging a charivari: remarriage of a widow or widower, the beating of a man by his wife, or an adulterous wife.
2. Amussen, Susan Dwyer. “”Being Stirred to Much Unquietness”: Violence and Domestic Violence in Early Modern England” Journal of Women’s History 6.2 (1994): 70-89. EBSCO. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. – This article focuses on attitudes to domestic violence and opinions about its legitimacy during the early modern period in England. This article is useful because it addresses social anxieties about violent wives, the goals of marriages, and the public nature of marriages and community intervention in marriage.
3. Cawte, E.C. “Parsons Who Rode the Stang.” Folklore 74.2 (1963): 399-401. JSTOR. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. – References three instances where parson or their wives were part of skimmington ride ceremonies.
4. Cunningham, B. Howard. “”A Skimmington” in 1618.” Folklore 41.3 (1930): 287-290. JSTOR. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. – Cunningham’s article provides a short description of the custom of “Skimmington riding,” a ceremony where inhabitants of a town would form a procession and ridicule husbands or wives that did not conduct themselves in the proper manner. The bulk of the article is dedicated to recounting a skimmington ride that occurred in 1618 in the village at Quemerford near Calne in England.
5. Dobash, Russell P., and R. Emerson Dobash. “Community Response to Violence against Wives: Charivari, Abstract Justice and Patriarchy.” Social Problems 28.5 (1981): 563-581. JSTOR. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. – The section ‘Community Regulation of Inversions of Domestic Authority’ was very informative and had a large reference section with a ton of promising search leads.
6. George, M.J. “Skimmington Revisited.” Journal of Men’s Studies 10.2 (2002): 111-117. Gale. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. – The article provides a history of skimmington rides in early modern England.
7. Gray, Douglas. “Rough Music: Some Early Invectives and Flytings.” The Yearbook of English Studies 14 (1984): 21-43. JSTOR. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. – This article explores the use of skimmington in satire and literature, mentioning works such as Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge and Samuel Butler’s Hudibras. Could be a great reference if I chose to read these two works and analyze them.
8. Ingram, Martin. “Ridings, Rough Music, and the “Reform of Popular Culture” in Early Modern Engalnd.” Past & Present 105 (1984): 79-113. JSTOR. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. – This article provides a great background for charivaris in early modern England and even has a number of pictures of skimmington rides. The references were also a great help in narrowing my search and gave me some new ideas on topics to look for related to my subject.
9. Thompson, E.P. “Rough Music Reconsidered.” Folklore 103.1 (1992): 3-26. JSTOR. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. – This article explores the wide range in uses of ‘rough music’, from good-natured joking to brutal satire. It also provided a number of primary sources to explore and helped give them some context.
1. Grose, Francis. A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue. The third edition, corrected and enlarged. London, 1796. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Gale. UC Davis. 22 Feb. 2012. – The definitions of “riding skimmington” (p.189) and “rough music” (p. 191) from an 18th century dictionary written by Francis Grose.
2. Ireland, Samuel. Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth. London: R. Faulder, 1799. Print. – This book contains a Hogarth print titled “Hudibras encounters the Skimmington” along with commentary by Ireland.